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Auditory Perception and Learning

Laboratory of Dr. Shaowen Bao


51. Miyakawa A, Wang W, Cho SJ, Li D, Yang S and Bao S. (2019). Tinnitus Correlates with Downregulation of Cortical Glutamate Decarboxylase 65 Expression but not Auditory Cortical Map Reorganization. Journal of Neuroscience, 10.1523/jneurosci.1117-19.2019.

50. Wang W, Zhang LS, Zinsmaier AK, Patterson G, Leptich EJ, Shoemaker SL, Yatskievych TA, Gibboni R, Pace E, Luo H, Zhang J, Yang S and Bao S. (2019). Neuroinflammation mediates noise-induced synaptic imbalance and tinnitus in rodent models. PLoS Biology, 17(6):e3000307. 

49. Yang S, Jung J, Jin SH, Bao S, and Yang S. (2018). A circuit mechanism of time-to-space conversion for perception. Hearing Research, 366: 32-37.

48. Wang W, Zinsmaier AK, Firestone E, Lin R, Yatskievych TA, Yang S,  Zhang J and Bao S. (2018). Blocking TNF-α expression prevents blast-induced excitatory/inhibitory synaptic imbalance and PV+ interneuron loss in the hippocampus. Journal of Neurotrauma, 35:2306-2316.

47. Masri S, Zhang LS, Luo H, Pace E, Zhang J and Bao S, (2018). Blast exposure disrupts tonotopic frequency map in the primary auditory cortex. Neuroscience, 379: 426-434.

46. Kim EG, Tu H, Luo H, Liu B, Bao S, Zhang J and Xu Y. (2015). 3D silicon neural probe with integrated optical fibers for optogenetic modulation. Lab on a Chip, 15, 2939–2949.

45. Bao S. (2015). Perceptual learning in the developing auditory cortex. European Journal of Neuroscience, 41: 718–724.

44. Yang S, Yang S, Park J-S, Kirkwood A and Bao S. (2014). Failed stabilization for long-term potentiation in the auditory cortex of Fmr1 knockout mice. PLoS ONE, 9: e104691.

43. Yang S, Zhang LS, Gibboni R, Weiner B and Bao S. (2014). Impaired development and competitive refinement of the cortical frequency map in tumor necrosis factor-α deficient mice. Cerebral Cortex, 24: 1956-1965.   

42. Hamilton LS, Sohl-Dickstein J, Huth AG, Carels VM, Deisseroth K and Bao S. (2013). Optogenetic activation of an inhibitory network enhances feed-forward functional connectivity in auditory cortex. Neuron, 80, 1066-1076. Preview: Inhibition mediates top-town control of sensory processing. F1000.

41. Kim H, Gibboni R, Kirkhart C and Bao S. (2013). Impaired critical period plasticity in primary auditory cortex of Fragile X model mice. Journal of Neuroscience, 33, 15686-15692.  This Week in The Journal.

40. Kim H and Bao S. (2013). Experience-dependent over-representation of ultrasonic vocalization frequencies in the rat primary auditory cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology, 110, 1087–1096. Editor's Choice.

39. Bao S, Chang EF, Teng C-L, Heiser MA and Merzenich MM. (2013). Emergent categorical representation of natural, complex sounds resulting from the early post-natal sound environment. Neuroscience, 248, 30-42.

38. Yang S and Bao S. (2013). Homeostatic mechanisms and treatment of tinnitus. Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, 31, 99-108.

37. Köver H, Gill K, Tseng YTL and Bao S. (2013). Perceptual and neuronal boundary learned from higher-order stimulus probabilities. Journal of Neuroscience, 33, 3699-3705.

36. Miyakawa A, Gibboni R and Bao S. (2013). Repeated exposure to a tone transiently alters spectral tuning bandwidth of neurons in the central nucleus of inferior colliculus in juvenile rats. Neuroscience, 230, 114-120.

35. Yang S, Su W and Bao S. (2012). Long-term, but not transient, threshold shifts alter the morphology and increase the excitability of cortical pyramidal neurons. Journal of Neurophysiology, 108: 1567-1574.

34. Yang S, Weiner BD, Zhang LS, Cho S-J and Bao S. (2011). Homeostatic plasticity drives tinnitus perception in an animal model. PNAS, 108, 14974-14979. F1000.

33. Köver H and Bao S. (2010). Cortical plasticity as a mechanism for storing bayesian priors in sensory perception. PLoS ONE, 5, e10497.

32. Insanally MN, Albanna BF and Bao S. (2010). Pulsed noise experience disrupts complex sound representations. Journal of Neurophysiology, 103: 2611-2617.

31. Geller SF, Guerin KI, Visel M, Pham A, Lee ES, Dror AA, Avraham KB, Hayashi T, Ra, CA, Reh TA, Bermingham-McDonogh O, Triffo WJ, Bao S, Isosomppi J, Vastinsalo H, Sankila E and Flannery JG. (2009). CLRN1 is nonessential in the mouse retina but is required for cochlear hair cell development. PLoS Genetics, 5, e1000607.

30. Sanes DH and Bao S. (2009). Tuning up the developing auditory CNS. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 19, 188-199.

29. Insanally MN, Köver H, Kim H and Bao S. (2009). Feature-dependent sensitive periods in the development of complex sound representation. Journal of Neuroscience, 29, 5425-5434.

28. Kim H and Bao S. (2009). Selective increase in representations of sounds repeated at an ethological rate. Journal of Neuroscience, 29, 5163-5169.

27. Kim H and Bao S. (2008). Distributed representation of perceptual categories in the auditory cortex. Journal of Computational Neuroscience, 14, 277-290. F1000.

26. Han YK, Köver H, Insanally MN, Semerdjian JH and Bao S. (2007). Early experience impairs perceptual discrimination. Nature Neuroscience, 10, 1191 – 1197. F1000.

25. Bart E, Bao S and Holcman D. (2005). Modeling the spontaneous activity of the auditory cortex. Journal of Computational Neuroscience, 19, 357-378. 


1. Chen C, Kano M, Abeliovich A, Chen L, Bao S, Kim JJ, Hashimoto K, Thompson RF and Tonegawa S. (1995). Impaired motor coordination correlates with persistent multiple climbing fiber innervation in PKC-gama mutant mice. Cell, 83, 1233-1242.

2. Chen L, Bao S, Kim JJ, Lockard J and Thompson RF. (1996). Impaired classical eyeblink conditioning in cerebellar lesion and Purkinje cell degeneration mutant mice. Journal of Neuroscience, 16, 2829-2838.                      

3. Shibuki K, Gomi H, Chen L, Bao S, Kim JJ, Wakatsuki H, Fujisaki T, Fujimoto K, Ikeda T, Chen C, Thompson RF and Itohara S. (1996). Deficient cerebellar long-term depression, impaired eyeblink conditioning and normal motor coordination in GFAP mutant mice. Neuron, 16, 587-599.

4. Thompson RF, Bao S, Chen L, Cipriano B, Grethe JS, Kim JJ, Thompson JK, Tracy J, Weninger MS and Krupa DJ. (1996). Associative learning. In:  The Cerebellum and Cognition,151-189. (Eds. J. D. Schmahmann), Academic Press, New York.

5. Kim JJ, Chen L, Bao S, Sun W and Thompson RF. (1996).  Genetic dissection of the cerebellar circuitry involved in classical eyeblink conditioning. In: Gene Targeting and New Development in Neurobiology, 3-15. (Eds. S. Nakanishi et al.), Japan Scientific Societies Press, Tokyo.

6. Kim JJ, Shih JC, Chen K, Chen L, Bao S, Maren S, Anagnostaras SG, Fanselow MS, Maeyer ED, Seif I and Thompson RF. (1997). Selective enhancement of emotional, but not motor learning in monoamine oxidase A-deficient mice. PNAS, 94, 5929-5933.

7. Bao S, Chen L and Thompson RF. (1998). Classical eyeblink conditioning in two strains of mice: conditioned responses, sensitization and spontaneous eyeblinks. Behavioral Neuroscience, 112, 714-718.

8. Bao S, Chen L, Qiao X and Thompson RF. (1998). Impaired classical eyeblink conditioning in waggler, a mutant mouse with localized BDNF deficit in the cerebellum. Learning and Memory, 5, 355-364.

9. Qiao X, Chen L, Gao H, Bao S, Hefti H, Thompson RF and Knusel B. (1998). Cerebellar brain-derived neurotrophic factor-TrkB defect associated with impairment of eyeblink conditioning in stargazer mutant mice. Journal of Neuroscience, 18, 6990-6999.

10. Chen L, Bao S and Thompson RF. (1999). Bilateral lesions of the interpositus nucleus completely prevent eyeblink conditioning in Purkinje cell degeneration mutant mice. Behavioral Neuroscience, 113, 204-210.

11. Bao S, Chen L, Qiao X and Thompson RF. (1999). Transgenic brain-derived neurotrophic factor modulates a developing cerebellar inhibitory synapse. Learning and Memory, 6, 276-283.

12. Chen L, Bao S, Qiao X and Thompson RF. (1999). Impaired cerebellar synapse maturation in the waggler, a mutant mouse with a disrupted neuronal calcium channel gamma subunit. PNAS, 96, 12132-12137.

13. Bao S, Chen L and Thompson RF. (2000). Learning- and cerebellum-dependent neuronal activity in the lateral pontine nucleus. Behavioral Neuroscience, 114, 254-61.

14. Bao S, Chen L, Kim JJ and Thompson RF. (2002). Cerebellar cortical inhibition and classical eyeblink conditioning. PNAS, 99, 1592-1597.

15. Bao S and Chen L. (2002). Genetic substrates of memory: cerebellum. In Learning and Memory: Macmillan Psychology Reference Series. Volume 2. (Ed. Byrne, J. H.). MacMillan, Farmington Hills.


16. Bao S, Chan VT and Merzenich MM. (2001). Cortical remodeling induced by activity of ventral tegmental dopamine neurons. Nature, 412, 79-83.

17. Mercado E III, Bao S, Orduńa I, Gluck MA and Merzenich MM. (2001). Basal forebrain stimulation changes cortical sensitivities to complex sound. Neuroreport, 12, 2283-2287.

18. Zhang LI, Bao S and Merzenich MM. (2001). Persistent and specific influences of early acoustic environments on primary auditory cortex. Nature Neuroscience 4, 1123-1130.

19. Zhang LI, Bao S and Merzenich MM. (2002). Disruption of primary auditory cortex by synchronous inputs. PNAS, 99, 2309-2314.

20. Bao S, Chan VT, Zhang LI and Merzenich MM. (2003). Suppression of cortical representation through backward conditioning. PNAS, 100, 1405-1408.

21. Bao S, Chang EF, Davis JD, Gobeske KT and Merzenich MM. (2003). Progressive degradation and subsequent refinement of acoustic representations in the adult auditory cortex. Journal of Neuroscience, 23, 10765–10775.

22. Bao S, Chang EF, Woods J and Merzenich MM. (2004). Temporal plasticity in the primary auditory cortex induced by operant perceptual learning. Nature Neuroscience 7, 1123-1130.

23. Chang EF, Bao S, Imaizumi K, Schreiner CE and Merzenich MM. (2005). Development of spectral and temporal response selectivity in the auditory cortex. PNAS, 102, 16460-16465

24. de Villers-Sidani E, Chang EF, Bao S and Merzenich MM. (2007). Critical period window for spectral tuning defined in the primary auditory cortex (A1) in the rat. Journal of Neuroscience, 27, 180-189.


Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, University of Arizona | 1501 N Campbell Ave, Tucson, AZ 85724-5051